DepressionTypes, Symptoms, & Treatments
Depression is a mood disorder that generally brings about sadness, but it can also influence a person’s energy, motivation, irritability, and overall well-being. It is one of the most powerful mental health conditions a person can endure. The numerous depressive disorders differ based on the types of symptoms as well as their frequency, intensity, duration, and triggers.
There are many different types of depression. Though these conditions differ, they share commonalities like mood low mood or irritability paired with changes in behavior and thinking that serve to reduce a person’s ability to function at their expected level.The main differences among depressive disorders are how long they last, the timing of symptoms, and the events or situations that trigger symptoms to emerge.
Five types of depression and depressive disorders include:1
- Major depressive disorder (MDD): this is the condition most people think about when considering depression. MDD is marked by five or more symptoms of depression lasting for at least two weeks. It can range in intensity from mild to severe.
- Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia): rather than a period of depression that recurs and remits, persistent depressive disorder represents a more stable and consistent level of depression. Symptoms may not be as intense as other disorders, but the duration will be very uncomfortable (at least two years in adults and one year in children).
- Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD): changing symptoms that accompany menstruation are expected, but premenstrual dysphoric disorder occurs when the repeated hormonal changes create a drastic shift in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In many cases, these symptoms make it impossible for a person to maintain relationships and responsibilities.
- Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD): as a disorder that targets children and teens, DMDD presents as anger and irritability more than sadness and low motivation. Kids with this condition may frequently tantrum and engage in unwanted outbursts.
- Other common depressive disorders: people may also experience depressive symptoms triggered by prior drug or medication use, while others will note other symptoms of depression that do not meet the criteria for a full depressive diagnosis. Sometimes depression is triggered by outside sources, while other times it is prompted by internal reasons (i.e., endogenous & exogenous depression).